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  • br Results and discussion br The results

    2019-11-11


    Results and discussion
    The results and discussion have been combined in line with the structure of many qualitative studies39
    The four major themes included: (1) knowledge and awareness of BC, (2) knowledge of MS, (3) personal factors, (4) medical service provider and social environment.
    (1) Knowledge and awareness of breast cancer
    Two focus groups were conducted to explore Kuwaiti women's knowledge of BC, attitudes toward MS and reasons for not attending. To represent knowledge and attitudes from a range of perspectives, the focus groups were conducted in two all women social organisations reflecting differing socio-economic, cultural and religious perspectives. One focus group (12 participants) was conducted at a social organisation whose membership take interest in issues relating to health, media, culture and sport (Focus Group 1). The second focus group (11 participants) took place at a social organisation whose role includes the improvement of literacy (Focus Group 2). All participants were of eligible MS age, yet none had previously presented for mammography screening. The age range of participants in group 1 spanned 41e60 years of age and 55e67 years of age in group 2. 
    Not all participants had equal knowledge of what BC was, and especially of any potential causes of BC. Those participants from focus group two demonstrated an overall lower knowledge of BC, its manifestations and potential causes. Participants in this AWD 131-138 later group included women of lower socio-economic status who accessed the social organisation to improve their literacy. Such findings are consistent with the reported literature which indicates that knowl-edge of BC and MSS is often limited among women of lower socio-economic status, poor literacy and rural habitation.27,40 Similarly, Lawal et al. (2015) reported that women with a tertiary education had a greater knowledge of breast cancer, were more likely to engage in breast self-examination and to attend for mammography screening, parallelling the responses from focus group one.28
    Theme 1: Knowledge Theme 2: Knowledge
    and awareness of Theme 3: Personal
    of mammography
    women-related
    factors
    screening
    breast cancer
    Sub-theme1: Fear
    Breas eeding
    and CBE
    Gene c
    determina on
    Fatalism
    Psychological
    health
    Family and social
    support
    Extraneous
    variables
    Sub-theme 5: personality trait
    Figure 1. Themes and Sub-themes identified by Thematic Analysis.  67
    Theme 4: Medical provision and social environment
    Sub-theme 1: Physicians’ recommenda ons
    Sub-theme 2: Knowledge of awareness campaigns
    Sub-theme 3: Accessing MS services
    Sub-theme 4: Social and professional roles
    Within interphase general theme of BC knowledge and awareness several sub-themes were identified including:
    Breastfeeding
    Participants in both focus groups identified the action of breast feeding as a potential preventative action for BC, and would negate any need to attend for MS.
    “… breastfeeding is one important way to protect women from developing breast cancer” Participant (P) 8 (Focus group 1)
    Not breast feeding and releasing breast milk was identified as a causative agent.
    “Breast cancer occurs when the woman does not breastfeed her baby, the milk will be accumulated and … becomes a tumour”. P7 (Focus group 2)
    These findings corroborate previous research identifying a fail-
    Genetic determination
    Participants in both focus groups used familial links to reinforce a potential genetic cause of BC.